This handout contains very simplified instructions for Turabian style citation. For more specific information, you can refer to the manual, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate Turabian.
What it is: Turabian is a
kind of citation involving either footnotes or endnotes. For the most part, it is a condensed version
When to use it: The purpose of all different methods of citation is the same; namely, to allow the reader to verify and evaluate the sources you used to write your paper. According to some users, Turabian is a bit neater and less obtrusive than parenthetical styles. Turabian is particularly helpful when the type of source is important (whether something is a letter, memoir, article, meeting minutes, monograph, etc.) Turabian also allows for explanatory footnotes. Turabian is most often used in departments such as history, art history, and political science.
Why you do it:
In learning about different subjects, we all
benefit from the work that has been done before on a particular topic. As you write, you add to the base of
knowledge available on a subject (that sounds important, doesn’t it?). Because we often rely on what has been done
before to aid us in our writing, it is necessary to give credit where credit is
due. On a more practical note, attributing,
borrowing, and citing sources correctly is the easiest way to avoid plagiarism
charges. For information on attribution
and borrowing, the
How you do it: Turabian may look a little daunting, but don’t worry, it’s fairly simple! When writing a paper that requires Turabian citation, there are two parts for each source: the in-text citations, and the bibliography. Below, we have given you examples from six major types of sources that you may have to use in writing your papers: Books, Print Articles, Articles from Online Databases, Reference Materials, Primary Sources, and Online Sources.
At the end of the quotation or sentence you want to cite, insert a footnote, like so. Your word processor can do this for you. You will need to indent the footnotes, just like each one is its own happy paragraph. After you have inserted a note into your paper, you need to write it. There are two main types of footnotes: explanatory and reference. For explanatory notes, simply type what you want the note to say. For reference sources, the first full citation note for a source should contain all the essential publishing information that a person would need to find the same source you used, and subsequent references should alert the reader to the source and the page number where you found the information.
At the end of your paper, you will need to compile a bibliography of the sources you used in writing your paper. This may or may not include sources that you consulted but did not cite (ask your professor if they have a preference). Generally, bibliographies are alphabetized by authors’ last name (or whatever comes first in the citation). Sometimes, longer bibliographies may be broken down into different sections, for example, “Primary Sources,” and “Secondary Sources.” Bibliography entries are single spaced with a double space between entries. Entries that are more than one line long are formatted in a “hanging indent” where the first line is flush left and subsequent lines are indented.
So now that you understand some of the logic behind Turabian, let’s get started!
First Full Citation:
Place the necessary information in the following order, with the punctuation as shown (if the source you are citing does not have one or more of the following, simply leave it out):
Author(s) First Name Last Name, Title: Subtitle [if any], Name of editor or compiler or translator, Number or name of edition if other than the first, Name of the series with volume number or number in series (Place of publication: Name of publishing agency, Year of publication), Page Number(s).
See below for an example from an actual source.
Special Rules for Citing Books:
Anthology/Compilation of Sources: If the book is an anthology or collection of articles, you should cite the author and title of the specific source you are citing first and then the book and the editor from which the selection was taken. Here is an example.
Book with two or more authors: List the authors’ names in the same order they are on the title page. If there are more than three authors, you can cite the first author’s name, followed by et al. A citation of this type would look like this.
Book with editors instead of authors: List the editor or editors’ names in the same order they are on the title page. After the last name, place a comma and the abbreviation, “eds.” Here’s an example of a book with editors.
After you give the full citation information, you can shorten subsequent citations for the same source. Usually, the shortened citation is simply the author’s last name and the page number, separated by a comma. If you are citing more than one work by a single author, for example two stories by Mark Twain, include a shortened title in your citation. If the citation is for the same source as the one immediately preceding it, use the abbreviation for Ibid., which is short for the Latin “in the same place.” For example, if you have two citations in a row for Mark Twain, the second one would look like this.
First Full Citation (Article in a Journal):
Place the necessary information in the following order.
Author(s) First Name Last Name, “Title: Subtitle [if any],” Title of Periodical, Volume and/or issue number (Publication Date): page number(s).
This is what the first citation from a journal article would look like.
First Full Citation (Article in a Magazine):
With popular magazines—like Time or People—unlike journal articles, you do not have to cite the volume or issue number. Place the necessary information in the following order.
Author(s) First Name Last Name, “Title: Subtitle [if any],” Title of Magazine, Date [Day Month Year], page number/s.
Here’s an example of an article from Newsweek.
First Full Citation (Article in a Newspaper):
Place the necessary information (omit any information that you do not have) in the following order.
Author(s) First Name Last Name, “Title,” Title of Newspaper, Date [Day Month Year], Section Number/Letter, page.
Want to know how to cite something from the Los Angeles Times?
Special Rules for Citing Newspaper Articles:
Names that start with “the”: Omit “the” from the beginning of newspaper titles. See footnote 12 for an example.
City of publication not in title or not well known: Place the city of publication before the newspaper title, italicize both. If the city is not widely known, or could be confused with another city give the state in parentheses.
The same general rules as subsequent references for books apply to print articles. Use the author’s last name (if given), a shortened title (if there is more than one work by an author), and a page number. Be consistent in your subsequent citations.
Citing Information from Electronic Databases
Sources from electronic databases are most likely articles that originally appeared in print sources, but that Hollins does not have. Most often, these are sources that are accessed through our library’s search engines from databases like EbscoHost, Expanded Academic Index, or JSTOR. The most recent Turabian edition (1996) does not address this issue specifically. Instead, what we have done is adapted the citation given in 8.139 for Information Services. The citation is very similar to those for print articles, but if you retrieved the information from an electronic database, you must also cite that information. Remember, the purpose of citing sources is so that the reader can identify and find the same information you used. This is especially important to remember when the manual does not have exactly what you need. Follow something close, and then be consistent.
First Full Citation
Place the necessary information in the following order (if the source you are citing does not have one or more of the following, simply leave it out):
Author, “Title: Subtitle,” Journal Title in which the Original Article Appeared, Volume and/or issue number (Publication Date): page numbers, Name of Service/Database.
Here’s an example of an article you can find on JSTOR.
Use the author’s last name (if given), a shortened title (if there is more than one work by an author), and a page number. Be consistent in your subsequent citations.
Reference sources (encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases and the like) are treated somewhat differently than other sources. They are usually not listed in the bibliography for a paper, but they can be cited in notes. Also, unlike other books, you can usually omit the publication information (place of publication, publisher, and the date). You must, however include the edition number or the copyright date. You should include the author, if one is cited.
First Full Citation:
There are two ways to cite an entry from a reference source. Both are given below. The first one is the more generally accepted form, but it looks quite different than other citations. The second one is also correct, and follows the format of other citations, so it may be easier to remember.
Option 1: The title of the source comes first; place the information in the following order (if the source you are citing does not have one or more of the following, simply leave it out):
Title of Reference Source, edition number, s.v. “Title of specific entry,” by Author First Name Last Name, page number of citation [if the entry itself is on more than one page].
Here’s an example.
Option 2: The author of the entry comes first; place the information in the following order (if the source you are citing does not have an author, you should use the first option for citation.)
Author First Name Last Name, “Title of Specific Entry,” in Title of Reference Source, edition number, page number of citation [if the entry itself is on more than one page].
Here’s the same source, using this method of citation.
Generally, follow the same format as you use in the first full citation. If you cited the author first, stick with that; if you cited the reference source first, use that with the entry title. Whichever way you choose to cite reference materials, be consistent throughout your paper.
Citing Information from Primary Sources
Sometimes, in your quest for knowledge you will be asked to consult “primary sources.” This is academic lingo for “first hand information.” Primary sources are the actual documents or sources on which interpretation and analysis is based. Things like diaries, letters, government documents, literature, interviews, meeting minutes, and photographs can all be primary sources. Secondary sources are ones where someone has interpreted, retold, or analyzed primary sources. Primary sources are the “evidence” used in secondary sources.
Citations of a Primary Source taken from a Secondary Source
If you take a quotation or reference to a primary source from a secondary source, you must cite both where to find the original document as well as where you actually found the quotation or reference. Failure to do cite both sources is a form of plagiarism.
Author of primary source First Name Last Name, Publication information for original source, page number(s), quoted in Author of secondary source, Publication information for secondary source, page number(s).
Here is an example.
By the author: Place the necessary information in the following order.
Name of person interviewed First Name Last Name, interview by author, type of interview [phone, tape recording, etc.], Place [City, State], Date [Day Month Year]
Here is a citation for an interview conducted in person through a translator.
By another person: Use this citation for interviews that were conducted by other people. These may be from print sources, television, radio, etc. If the source you are using does not have part of this information, simply leave it out.
Name of person interviewed First Name Last Name, “Title of Interview Article,” interview by Name of interviewer First Name Last Name, Medium in which the interview appeared [Italicized if it is the name of a book or periodical], Name of any editor or translator or director, Publication information (place, date, copyright), page number.
This footnote is an example of an interview cited from a magazine.
Citing Information from Primary Sources, Continued
Published Diaries, Collections of Letters, Public Papers, Speeches, etc.
Most often, you cite these materials the same way you cite something that is in an anthology or collection. The author of the document comes first (along with the “addressee” in case of a letter), then the title of the document if there is one, and the date the entry or letter was written. Then, you cite the information for the published source including the title, the editor’s name, and the publication information. Here is an example of a citation for a presidential speech.
Unpublished Diaries, Collections of Letters, Public Papers, Speeches, etc.
These citations are fairly complicated, but the occasions on which you would have to use them are generally rare. For help with this type of citation, consult section 8.131 of the Turabian manual. The same advice goes for theses or dissertations that are unpublished or distributed through University Microfilms.
Other Primary Sources
are many, many, many more types of citations for primary sources. Some of the ones that are covered in the
Turabian manual include government documents, legal proceedings, legal
decisions, works of art, musical scores, biblical references, and many
more. If you need to cite these
materials, we suggest you consult the handbook.
We have several copies here at the
The Internet can be both a researcher’s best friend and worst enemy. The World Wide Web has put an immense amount of knowledge at your fingertips—but you must decipher which of these sources are reliable, and which ones are worthless. Unlike most books and periodicals, sources published on the Internet are not refereed, that is to say there is no one watching to ensure the accuracy or validity of web-postings. There is useful information on the World Wide Web—many libraries and depositories have documents available on-line, and several reputable journals are on-line. This said, you must be careful to cite only that material on the web that is reliable and can be traced to a verifiable source.
Like the citations for articles retrieved from electronic databases, the Turabian manual is not very specific about citing websites. We chose to follow the format given in 8.141, Electronic Documents. Follow this format as closely as possible, but just make sure your citations are consistent.
First Full Citation
Place the necessary information in the following order (if the source you are citing does not have one or more pieces of information, simply leave it out).
Author of website First Name Last Name, “Title of Specific Web Page or Document,” Original publication information, Title of Entire Web Site, [type of Web source, i.e. personal homepage, corporate site, database, etc.]; available from full URL; Internet; accessed Day Month Year.
Here is an example of a citation from a document that is available online.
As with other sources, all of your citations should make it clear to which source you are referring. Provide the authors name if it is given and the title (or a shortened version) that you used in the first citation.
The bibliographic citations will look very similar to those in the footnotes with a couple of major exceptions. In the bibliography, authors’ names are listed in inverted order (last name first) because the bibliography is usually organized alphabetically by the authors’ last name. Also, periods are used to separate the items in the citation rather than commas or semicolons. Finally, the publication information for books is not placed in parentheses, although the publication dates for periodicals are. All of the entries in a Turabian bibliography are single spaced, with a full line between each citation. If an entry is more than one line long, the first line is flush left, and subsequent lines are indented one “tab.”
Robert and Richard Immerman. Waging Peace:
How Eisenhower Shaped an Enduring Cold War Strategy.
Foreign Office. FO371, FO Minute, 30 March 1943, A3068/4/2. Vol 22507. Quoted
in Bryce Wood. Dismantling the Good
for Defense Analysis. “The Evolution of US Strategic Command and Control and
Warning, 1945-1972” [Report, June 1975.
John, A. Andrew, Rowena A. Pecchenino, and Stacey L. Schreft. “The Macroeconomics of Dr. Strangelove.” The American Ecnomic Review 83, no. 1 (March 1993): 43-62.
Minh Huy. Interview by author. Personal interview through translator.
Rogers, Michael. “Software for War or Peace: All the World’s a Game.” Newsweek. 9 December 1985.
Roman, Peter. “Ike’s Hair Trigger: US Nuclear Predelegation, 1953-1960.” Security Studies 7 (Summer 1998): 121-164.
Franklin D. “We Americans Have Cleared Our Decks and Taken Our
Isaac Bahevis. Interview by Harold Flender. Writers at Work: The “
Kate. A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th
ed., Revised by John Grossman and Alice Bennett.
Mark. “The Notorious Jumping Frog of
Wilson, Charles and Geoffrey Parker, eds. An Introduction to the Sources of European Economic History 1500-1800. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1977.
 To insert a footnote or endnote: Go to the “Insert” menu tab (alt + I), then go to footnote, a dialogue box will appear, asking you whether you want to use footnotes or endnotes. Once you choose, the computer will automatically number the notes and place them on the correct page. Even if you move sentences around, the numeration will still be correct.
 An explanatory footnote can give the reader several types of information: that which is interesting, but not immediately relevant to the text; that which is relevant, but it not necessary to understand the text; or an explanation of something in the text that may not be clear to all readers.
 Kate Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 6th ed., rev. John Grossman and Alice Bennett, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 123.
 Mark Twain, “The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County,” in The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction, R.V. Cassill, ed., 2nd ed., (New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1981), 246.
 Robert Bowie and Richard Immerman, Waging Peace: How Eisenhower Shaped an Enduring Cold War Strategy, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 89.
 Charles Wilson and Geoffrey Parker, eds., An Introduction to the Sources of European Economic History 1500-1800, (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1977), 258.
 Turabian, 140.
 Mark Twain, “Notorious Jumping Frog,” 249.
 Ibid., 250.
 A. Andrew John, Rowena A. Pecchenino, and Stacey L. Schreft, “The Macroeconomics of Dr. Strangelove,” The American Ecnomic Review 83, no. 1 (March 1993): 43-62.
 Michael Rogers, “Software for War or Peace: All the World’s a Game,” Newsweek, 9 December 1985, 82.
 Tyler Marshall, “200th
Birthday of Grimm Celebrated,”
 Here are some examples: Lizard Lick (NC) Herald-Tribune instead of Herald Tribune, or Ottowa (IL) Times instead of Ottowa Times.
 Peter Roman, “Ike’s Hair Trigger: US Nuclear Predelegation, 1953-1960.” Security Studies 7. ( Summer 1998): 121-164, JSTOR.
 Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., s.v. “Blake, William,” by J.W. Cosyns-Carr. The abbreviation “s.v.” comes from the Latin sub verbo, which means “under the word.”
 J.W. Cosyns-Carr, “Blake, William,” in Encyclopedia Brittannica, 11th ed.
 J.W. Cosyns-Carr, “Blake, William.” Or Encyclopedia Britannica, “Blake, William.”
British Foreign Office, FO371, FO Minute, 30 March 1943, A3068/4/2. Vol 22507, quoted in Bryce Wood, Dismantling the Good Neighbor Policy, (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985), 18.
 Le Minh Huy, interview by author,
personal interview through translator,
 Isaac Bahevis Singer, interview by
Harold Flender, in Writers at Work:
 Franklin D. Roosevelt, “We Americans Have Cleared Our Decks and Taken Our Battle Stations,” Navy and Total Defense Day Address, 27 October 1941, in The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Samuel Rosenman, ed., comp., 1941 Volume: The Call To Battle Stations (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1950), 439.
 Institute for Defense Analysis, “The Evolution of US Strategic Command and Control and Warning, 1945-1972” [Report, June 1975. Top Secret] (Washington DC: IDA, 1975), The National Security Archive; available from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/NC/nh5_4.gif; Internet; accessed 23 March 2002.
 Institute for Defense Analysis, “The Evolution of US Strategic Command and Control.”